Optimization of radiological doses to patients undergoing Intravenous Urography examinations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background: The effects of ionizing radiation should be a permanent concern in radiological practice, especially in exams with long duration and high exposure, like Intravenous Urography.
Objective: To calculate entrance surface dose as a result of radiation exposure of patients due to Intravenous Urography examinations.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 145 adult patients above 16 years of age. Two government and two private hospitals were included in the study period from February 2012 - March 2012 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The characteristics of the radiographic equipment and the exposure data of each patient were recorded using designed format. The radiation output of the x-ray machines was measured using Unfors RaySafeXI R/F detector. Doses delivered to patients were determined using appropriate equation. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical software.
Results: An average of 6.0 radiographs was obtained per patient. The mean entrance surface air kearma, entrance surface dose; Cumulative entrance surface air kearma; Cumulative entrance surface dose range from 3.9 to 7.6 mGy, 5.5- 10.1 mGy, 21.5 to 53.5 mGy and 29.9 - 74.3 mGy respectively.
Conclusion: The mean entrance surface dose recorded in this study (8.6mGy) was less than the diagnostic reference levels recommended by Commission for European Community (10mGy) and International Atomic Energy Agency (10mGy). These insure that the Intravenous Urography examinations performed in these hospitals were capable of achieving acceptable dose levels for patient safety. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2014;28(3):202-210]