The epidemiology of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

Awoke Derbie, Yinebeb Mezgebu, Daniel Mekonnen, Tigist Birku, Agmas Dessalegn, Senait Tadesse, Fantahun Biadglegne

Abstract


Abstract
Background: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) continues to cause considerable morbidi¬ty and mortality. Ethiopia is among the 22 high TB burden countries reported. Currently, data regarding the magnitude of TB and associated factors have been released at different health facilities as part of service auditing. However, such data are not universally available that this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of smear positive tuberculosis and its associated risk factors at FelegeHiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH) over a period of five years.
Methods: We analyzed all the records of 12,442 presumptive TB patients registered at FHRH from 2011 to 2015. Data on patient’s sex, age, residential address and sputum smear microscopy results were extracted from laboratory registration logbook. All data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 22 for windows. The proportion and trend of smear positive TB over the five years period was calculated and the overall prevalence of TB in these years was determined. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between TB positivity and potential associated variables; p < 0.05 was considered to be significant.
Results: TB suspected patients were found to be characterized as male 7052 (56.7%), within the age group of 15-29 years of age 4105 (33.0%) and were from rural settings7841 (63.0). The number of presumptive TB patients visiting FHRH over the five years period was quite variable. However, the prevalence of smear positive TB in each year was almost consistent, ranging from 4.2% to 6.5%. The prevalence of smear positive TB among new and follow up patients was at 5.2% and 4.5%, respectively. The proportion of overall burden of smear positive pulmonary TB was estimated at 5.2% and was found significantly associated with age group between 15-29 (AOR: 0.45, 95% CI, 0.23-0.77), 30-44 (AOR:0.22, 95% CI, 0.15-0.32) and 45-59 (AOR:0.38, 95% CI, 0.26-0.56).
Conclusions: In the studied area high prevalence of smear positive TB was documented over the five years period; which implies inconsistent measures being taken to reduce the burden of the disease. Hence, interventions to decrease prevalence of TB and thereby its impacts need to be evaluated and strengthened. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2017;31(3):155-160]
Key words: TB, Trend, Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital

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