Crowding in a traditional rural housing (“Tukul”) in Ethiopia



Abstract Background: Poor housing condition is one of the major public health concerns in many developing nations due to its association with the health status. Objectives: To determine the size of traditional “Tukul†by altitudinal zone in rural communities. Methods: During a census enumeration 5113 rural housing units were physically assessed. Axis, radius, and wall height were measured to the nearest centimeter by trained enumerators using a tape meter. Results: The mean (±SD) values of axis, radius, and wall height were found to be as 537.92cm (±84.88), 329.43cm (±64.81), and 236.38cm (±22.65), respectively. The mean (±SD) space for floor area was 35.43 (13.72)m2 and space by indoor volume was 123.42 (60.26)m3 per habitable “Tukulâ€. According to the WHO literatures for a dwelling units, about 85% of the “Tukuls†in a rural area are crowded and far behind to satisfy the physiological needs of a resident. Nearly 95% of housing units had only one room. Conclusions and Recommendations: The high magnitude of overcrowding in rural housing units indicates the poor living and sanitation conditions. As this predisposes to many adverse health conditions, appropriate interventions need to be done with out delay. [Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2002;16(3):303-308]



How to Cite

Kumie, A., & Berhane, Y. (2021). Crowding in a traditional rural housing (“Tukul”) in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 16(3). Retrieved from

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