Assessment of clinical profiles, and treatment outcomes for children with diabetic ketoacidosis, in two hospitals selected from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2020
Abstract Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a common autoimmune disorder that often presents in children. In these patients, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the most common and serious acute complications, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The study aimed to assess the clinical profiles and outcomes of children admitted with DKA. Objective: To assess the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of DKA patients in two tertiary hospitals in Addis Ababa.
Methods: A hospital-based retrospective analysis was conducted on 175 pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis children, who were admitted to the emergency units of two hospitals in Addis Ababa from September 2015 to February 2020 and whose medical records contained complete pertinent data. Patients were between the ages of 0 to 12 years. Proportional samples were taken from each hospital and data was collected retrospectively using a formatted checklist. The data was checked for its inclusiveness and entered Epi Info. version 4.6 and then transferred into SPSS version 25 software for further analysis.
Result: DKA was the presenting manifestation of Diabetes in 78.3% of patients and 21.7% were already known cases of Diabetes. Half (50.9%) of the study participants were diagnosed with DKA in the age range of 5 to 10 years and almost one-third (30.9%) were above the age of 10. A high-income level of the caretakers was found to be protective against DKA during the diagnosis of T1DM. Out of the 175 children admitted, 12 passed on, resulting in a mortality rate of 6.9%.
Conclusion: The majority of the known DM patients presented with DKA after the omission of insulin and a newly diagnosed T1DM at first presentation. The age of presentation and clinical symptoms of the studied participants were like other international studies. Community education regarding the signs and symptoms of childhood DM can further prevent the development of DKA. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2022; 36(2):000-000]
Keywords: Diabetic ketoacidosis, Treatment outcome, and precipitating factors.