Urban-Rural Differences of Domestic Violence against Women in North-east India: Evidence from the Demographic Health Survey 2015-16 (NFHS-4)
Urban-Rural Differences of Domestic Violence against Women in North-east India:
Background: North-east Indian states possessed a key concern regarding women's domestic violence for minimum reduction of the percentage of DV against women over the decade, where the place of living may one of the major factors to understand the nature of DV. The purpose of this study was to uncover the role played by settlements (urban vs rural) in shaping different forms of DV against women under certain socio-economic factors.
Methods: The study was conducted in the 8 Northeastern states of India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur, Sikkim, and Tripura) by using India Demographic Health Survey 2015-16 data (also known as National Family Health Survey 15-16).
Results: It was evident that out of 8 North-east Indian states, five states (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, and Tripura) had more than 20% "Less Severe Physical Domestic Violence by Husband/Partners", where ever-married women aged 15-49 years from Manipur experienced highest less severe DV (52.50%), severe DV (11.55%) and sexual DV(15.0%). The percentage of physical DV (Less Severe) among rural women was significantly higher than that among the urban counterparts across the states, except Mizoram and Sikkim. Low education of women and husband, disadvantageous economic condition, alcohol consumption by husband, the higher number of children, women belong to Muslim religious group and working women without autonomy may have played additive and significant impact on higher percentage physical DV (Less Severe) throughout the states.
Conclusion: The relative risks of the contribution of the aforesaid socio-economic and demographic determinants were varied settlement-wise (urban vs rural). Therefore, it does require continuous community and settlement-specific-comprehensive-intervention-program to minimize the DV against women in northeast India.