Background: Metabolic syndrome is becoming more prevalent around the world, with insulin resistance and obesity as particularly critical factors determining the condition. It is known that insulin resistance has a very strong correlation with muscle mass and muscular strength. However, there are few studies on the relationship between handgrip strength and metabolic syndrome, and those studies that have been carried out have mainly focused on the elderly. The purpose of the current study is to use the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to identify the relationship between handgrip strength and metabolic syndrome among Korean adults aged 19 years old and above.
Participants and methods: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a nationwide cross-sectional survey that assesses the health and nutritional status of the Korean population. The current study analyzed the relationship between grip strength and metabolic syndrome of 10,094 Korean adults aged ≥19 years (4,402 men and 5,692 women) in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014-2017). Those with cancer or those who had experienced a stroke, angina or myocardial infarction were excluded, as were pregnant or breast-feeding women. The diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on those of the American Heart Association/National Heart Long and Blood Institute, which are altered versions of the National Cholesterol Education Program – Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Grip strength was measured data using a digital grip strength dynamometer.
Results: Logistic regression analysis was performed by dividing grip strength into quintiles. A significant decrease in figures compared to Q1 in the odds ratio for both men and women was observed due to age adjustment (Q2: 0.84, Q3: 0.43, Q4: 0.24, Q5: 0.15 for men; Q2: 0.63, Q3: 0.41, Q4: 0.23, Q5: 0.08 for women). Also, due to the correction of demographic factors (age, educational status, marital status, income status, smoking status, drinking status, and menopausal status for women), the odds ratio significantly decreased figures compared to Q1 for both men and women (Q2: 0.80, Q3: 0.37, Q4: 0.21, Q5: 0.13 for men; Q2: 0.63, Q3: 0.45, Q4: 0.24, Q5: 0.09 for women).
Conclusions: Higher grip strength brought down the risk of metabolic syndrome for both men and women. Therefore, to prevent and treat metabolic syndrome, it is recommended that patients exercise steadily to enhance muscular strength and muscle mass for better health outcomes. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2020;34(Special issue-3):18-27]
Key words: Muscle strength, metabolic syndrome, grip strength, grip strength/body weight